Glossary

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Aboriginal Peoples: In Canada, the term “Aboriginal peoples” refers to three distinct groups: First Nations, Inuit and Métis people. The federal government distinguishes between registered (or status) and non-registered (non-status) Indians. A status Indian is a First Nations person registered under the terms of Canada’s federal Indian Act. Registration ensures the right to live on-reserve and have access to treaty and/or policy-defined benefits provided by the federal government (subsidized medication, eye care, etc.). Non-registered Indians are a provincial jurisdiction. Métis are not eligible for registration. We are using the term Aboriginal peoples to highlight the diversity of Nations, groups and communities represented therein. (Browne, A. J., Varcoe, C. M., Wong, S. T., Smye, V. L., Lavoie, J. G., Littlejohn, D., et al. (2012). Closing the health equity gap: Evidence-based strategies for primary health care organizations. International Journal for Equity in Health, 11(59), 1-15.)

Culturally-Safe Care: Taking into account not only the cultural meaning of health and illness, but equally importantly, people’s experiences of racism, discrimination and marginalization and the ways those experiences shape health, life opportunities, access to health care, and quality of life. (Browne, A. J., Varcoe, C. M., Wong, S. T., Smye, V. L., Lavoie, J. G., Littlejohn, D., et al. (2012). Closing the health equity gap: Evidence-based strategies for primary health care organizations. International Journal for Equity in Health, 11(59), 1-15.)

Equity Informed Care: Explicitly addressing the social determinants of health as legitimate and routine aspects of health care, often as the main priority. (Browne, A. J., Varcoe, C. M., Wong, S. T., Smye, V. L., Lavoie, J. G., Littlejohn, D., et al. (2012). Closing the health equity gap: Evidence-based strategies for primary health care organizations. International Journal for Equity in Health, 11(59), 1-15.)

Health Equity: Equity in health can be defined as the absence of systematic and potentially remediable differences in one or more characteristics of health across populations or population groups defined socially, economically, demographically, or geographically. (Wong, S. T., Browne, A. J., Varcoe, C. M., Lavoie, J. G., Smye, V. L., Godwin, O., et al. (2011). Enhancing measurement of primary health care indicators using an equity lens: An ethnographic study. International Journal for Equity in Health, 10, 38.)

Health Inequities: Health inequity refers to differences in health or access to care that can result from structural arrangements that are potentially remedial; in this sense, inequities may be deemed unjust. (Starfield, B. (2006). State of the art in research on equity in health. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 31(1), 11-32.)

Marginalized Populations: Refers to the inequitable social conditions that result in a disproportionate burden of ill health and social suffering among particular groups or individuals, as well as peoples’ agency, resistance and resilience in the face of these challenges. (Browne, A. J., Ford-Gilboe, M., Herbert, C., Lavoie, J., MacDonald, M., Pauly, B., et al. (2012). EQUIP healthcare: Project summary.)

Primary Health Care (PHC): “Primary health care refers to an approach to health and a spectrum of services beyond the traditional health care system. It includes all services that play a part in health, such as income, housing, education, and environment. Primary care is the element within primary health care that focuses on health care services, including health promotion, illness and injury prevention, and the diagnosis and treatment of illness and injury.” (Health Canada (2012). Health care system: About primary health care Retrieved Aug 9, 2013, from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hcs-sss/prim/about-apropos-eng.php)

Social Determinants of Health: “The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.” (World Health Organization (2013). Social determinants of health: What are social determinants of health? Retrieved Aug 9, 2013, from http://www.who.int/social_determinants/sdh_definition/en/index.html)

Trauma and Violence Informed Care: Recognizing that most people affected by systemic inequities and structural violence have experienced, and often continue to experience, varying forms of violence with traumatic impact. Such care consists of respectful, empowerment practices informed by understanding the pervasiveness and effects of trauma and violence, rather than ‘trauma treatment’ such as psychotherapy. (Browne, A. J., Varcoe, C. M., Wong, S. T., Smye, V. L., Lavoie, J. G., Littlejohn, D., et al. (2012). Closing the health equity gap: Evidence-based strategies for primary health care organizations. International Journal for Equity in Health, 11(59), 1-15.)