The Action Kit is based on our own previous research, and builds on ideas from other theoretical and empirical work on health equity, TVIC, anti-racism and anti-Indigenous racism and substance use health / harm reduction. Key background publications and other resources are listed below and we acknowledge these important foundational and ongoing contributions to our work, which are threaded throughout the Action Kit.


Brian Sinclair Working Group. (2017). Out of Sight: A summary of the events leading up to Brian Sinclair’s death and the inquest that examined it and the interim Recommendations of the Brian Sinclair Working Group. Retrieved from

Browne, A. J. (2005). Discourses influencing nurses’ perceptions of First Nations patients. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 37(4), 62-87.

Browne, A. J., & Varcoe, C. (2006). Critical cultural perspectives and health care involving Aboriginal peoples. Contemporary Nurse, 22(2), 155-167. doi:

Browne, A. J., Varcoe, C., Ford-Gilboe, M., Wathen, C. N., Smye, V., Jackson, B. E., . . . Blanchet Garneau, A. (2018). Disruption as opportunity: Impacts of an organizational health equity intervention in primary care clinics. International Journal for Equity in Health, 17(1), 154. doi:

Browne, A. J., Varcoe, C., & Ward, C. (2021). San’yas Indigenous cultural safety training as an educational intervention: Promoting anti-racism and equity in health systems, policies and practices. International Indigenous Policy Journal, 12(3). doi:

Canas, E., Pradhan, S., & Wathen, C. (in press). Development of a Core Trauma- & Violence-Informed Care e-Learning Curriculum. In C. Wathen & C. Varcoe (Eds.), Implementing Trauma- and Violence-Informed Care: A Handbook for Health & Social Services (pp. TBA). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Chadha, E. (2020). Why it’s dangerous to be disabled and Indigenous in Canada. Retrieved from

Council of the Atikamekw of Manawan and the Council de la Nation Atikamekw. (2020). Joyce’s Principle. Retrieved from Manawan, Québec:

Dei, G. J. S., McDermott, M., SpringerLink, SpringerLink ebooks – Humanities, S. S., & Law. (2014). Politics of Anti-Racism Education: In Search of Strategies for Transformative Learning (Vol. 27). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Dei, G. S., Calliste, A., & Dei, G. J. S. (2000). Power, Knowledge and Anti-Racist Education: A Critical Reader. Winnipeg, CA: Fernwood Publishing.

Duthie, D., & Duthie, D. (2019). Embedding Indigenous Knowledges and Cultural Safety in Social Work Curricula: Commentary on “Creating a culturally safe space when teaching Aboriginal content in social work: A scoping review” (Fernando & Bennett, 2018). Australian Social Work, 72(1), 113-116. doi:https://10.1080/0312407X.2018.1534978

Fernando, T., & Bennett, B. (2019). Creating a Culturally Safe Space When Teaching Aboriginal Content in Social Work: A Scoping Review. Australian Social Work, 72(1), 47-61. doi:10.1080/0312407X.2018.1518467

Ford-Gilboe, M., Wathen, C. N., Varcoe, C., Herbert, C., Jackson, B., Lavoie, J., . . . Browne, A. J. (2018). How Equity-Oriented Health Care Affects Health: Key Mechanisms and Implications for Primary Health Care Practice and Policy. Millbank Quarterly, 96(4), 635-671. doi:10.1111/1468-0009.12349

Franklin, H., Paradies, Y., & Kowal, E. (2014). Critical evaluation of a program to foster reflexive antiracism. International Journal of Social Science Research, 2(2), 20-46. doi:

Fridkin, A., Browne , A. J., & Dion Stout, M. (2019). The RIPPLES of meaningful involvement: A framework for meaningfully involving Indigenous peoples in health policy decision-making. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 10(3). doi:

Harding, L. (2018). What’s the harm? Examining the stereotyping of Indigenous Peoples in health systems.

Johansen, C., Nakagawa, B., Hacker, C., & Oetter, H. (2021). Racism in Health Care: An Apology to Indigenous People and a Pledge to Be Anti-Racist.  British Columbia College of Nurses & Midwives, College of Dental Surgeons of British Columbia, College of Pharmacists of British Columbia, & College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia [Press release]. Retrieved from

Kirkup, K. (2020). Health experts urge Ottawa to amend Canada Health Act to include anti-racism pillar. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from

Levine, S., Varcoe, C., & Browne, A. J. (2020). “We went as a team closer to the truth”: impacts of interprofessional education on trauma- and violence- informed care for staff in primary care settings. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 1-9. doi:10.1080/13561820.2019.1708871

McCallum, M. J. L., & Perry, A. (2018). Structures of indifference: An Indigenous life and death in a Canadian city. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba Press.

Okun, T. (2010). The emperor has no clothes: Teaching about race and racism to people who don’t want to know. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Roman, L. G. (Ed.) (1993). White is a color! White defensiveness, postmodernism and anti-racism pedagogy New York: Routledge.

Sefa Dei, G. J., Newton, J., Soltani, A., SpringerLink ebooks, E., & Brill Online, B. (2017). New framings on anti-racism and resistance: Volume 2, Resistance and the new futurity (1 ed.). Taipei, [Taiwan];Rotterdam, Netherlands;Boston, [Massachusetts];: Sense Publishers.

Sukhera, J., Gonzalez, C., & Watling, C. J. (2020). Implicit Bias in Health Professions: From Recognition to Transformation. Academic Medicine, 1. doi:

Tang, S. Y., & Browne, A. J. (2008). ‘Race’ matters: Racialization and egalitarian discourses involving Aboriginal people in the Canadian health care context. Ethnicity and Health, 13(2), 109-127. doi:

Thomas, K., Browne, A. J., Jiao, S., Dooner, C., Wright, P., Slemon, A., . . . Varcoe, C. (2021). Media framing of emergency departments: a call to action for nurses and other health care providers. BMC Nursing, 20(1), 1-12. doi:10.1186/s12912-021-00606-2

Turpel-Lafond, M. E. (2020). In Plain Sight: Addressing Indigenous-specific Racism and Discrimination in B.C. Health Care. Retrieved from

United Nations. (2008). United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved from

Vallianatos, M. A. (2018). Best approaches for anti-racist education. Retrieved from Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.:

Varcoe, C. (2006). Doing Participatory Action Research in a Racist World. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 28(5), 525-540.

Varcoe, C., Browne, A. J., Bungay, V., Perrin, N., Wilson, E., Wathen, N., . . . Price, R. (2022). Through an equity lens: Illuminating the relationships among social inequities, stigma and discrimination and patient experiences of Emergency health care. International Journal of Health Services, 1-15. doi:

Varcoe, C., Browne, A. J., & Wilson, E. (2022). Substance use and health assessment. In A. J. Browne, J. MacDonald-Jenkins, & M. Luctkar-Flude (Eds.), Physical Examination and Health Assessment by C. Jarvis (Fourth Canadian Edition ed.). Toronto: Elsevier.

Varcoe, C., Bungay, V., Browne, A. J., Wilson, E., Wathen, C. N., Kolar, K., . . . Price, E. R. (2019). EQUIP Emergency: Study protocol for an organizational intervention to promote equity in health care. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 687. doi:

Varcoe, C., & McCormick, J. (2007). Racing around the classroom margins: Race, racism and teaching nursing. In L. Young & B. Patterson (Eds.), Learning nursing: Student-centered theories, models, and strategies for nurse educators (pp. 439-446). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ward, C. (2018). Teaching about race and racism in the classroom: Managing the Indigenous elephant in the room. (Doctor of Education), Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC. Retrieved from 

Wathen, C. N., & Varcoe, C. (2022). Implementing Trauma- and Violence-Informed Care: A Handbook for Health and Social Services. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Wiens, K., Rosella, L. C., Kurdyak, P., & Hwang, S. W. (2020). Patterns and predictors of high-cost users of the health system: a data linkage protocol to combine a cohort study and randomised controlled trial of adults with a history of homelessness. BMJ Open, 10(12), e039966. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039966

Williams, D. R., Lawrence, J. A., & Davis, B. A. (2019). Racism and health: Evidence and needed research. Annual Review of Public Health, 40(1), 105-125. doi: